SOLAR SERDAR recommends SolarWorld

SolarWorld is the largest PV manufacturer in the U.S. and is currently building its network of installers across the country. Our modules are completely Made in the USA (98.6%) and lead the competition on energy production based on independent studies. How a PV cell makes electricity Under the sun, a photovoltaic cell acts as a photosensitive diode that instantaneously converts light – but not heat – into electricity. Cell Layers A top, phosphorus-diffused silicon layer carries free electrons – unanchored particles with negative charges. A thicker, borondoped bottom layer contains holes, or absences of electrons, that also can move reely. In effect, precise manufacturing has instilled an electronic imbalance between the two layers. Sun Activation Photons bombard and penetrate the cell. They activate electrons, knocking them loose in both silicon layers. Some electrons in the bottom layer sling-shot to the top of the cell. These electrons flow into metal contacts as electricity, moving into a circuit throughout a 60-cell module. Electrons flow back into the cell via a solid contact layer at the bottom, creating a closed loop or circuit. SolarWorld manufacturers solar panels entirely in the USA from raw silicon to completed solar panels. This process involves four main steps: crystal growing, wafering, solar cell production and solar panel assembly. Learn about each of the four steps below. Crystal growing Wafering Solar cell production Solar panel assembly SolarWorld heats and melts polysilicon rock until it forms a whitehot liquid, then re-fuses the molten silicon into a single giant crystal in which all atoms are perfectly aligned in a desired structure and orientation. Charging The magic starts with about 250 pounds of polysilicon rocks carefully stacked in a quartz crucible. The only other ingredient is a silicon disk impregnated with a tiny amount of boron. The addition of the oron dopant ensures that the resulting crystal will bear a positive potential electrical orientation. The crucible is encased within thick walls of insulating graphite and locked inside a cylindrical furnace.More info at Melting As the crystal-growing furnace heats up to temperatures ranging around 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit, its silicon contents melt into a shimmering slurry. Once computerized monitors register the right temperature and atmospheric conditions, the alchemy begins. A silicon seed crystal, hung from a narrow cable attached to a rotary device atop the furnace, is slowly lowered into the melt. Growing The crucible starts to turn, and the seed crystal begins to rotate in the opposite direction. The silicon melt freezes onto the seed crystal, matching the seed’s crystalline structure. The crystal grows, the cable and seed slowly ascend, and the crystal elongates at a controlled width. As the growth depletes the silicon slurry, the crucible also rises. Cooling Flash forward about 2.5 days since the crucible was charged with polysilicon: After hours of cooling to about 300 degrees Fahrenheit, the furnace hood and shaft lift away from the crucible encasement, slowly swing to one side and reveal a completed cylindrical crystal, ready to move to the second step and next production room. A silicon crystal must change shape several times before it winds up as the precisely calibrated wafers that form the foundations of photovoltaic cells. Cutting First, a saw cuts off the crystal’s so-called top and tail, so that a crystal of uniform width remains. Typically, wafering saws draw thin wire bearing a liquid abrasive across the crystal’s surface. (Below, a machine mounted with a giant donutlike steel blade does the cutting.) Wire saws also cut the crystal into ingots measuring 2 feet or less. Steel holders are mounted on the ends of these ingots for the next step. Squaring Mounted ingots are placed standing on end in a rack bearing 16 at a time inside another wireslicing machine. There, wire running in a lattice configuration descends on the ingots to shear off four rounded segments, leaving flat sides. The result: The ingots now have a square crosssection, except for still-rounded corners. Slicing The next wire saw is more intricate yet. A wire winding hundreds of times between two cylindrical drums forms a web of parallel, tightly spaced segments. As the wire unspools through the machine, ingots mounted sideways on glass and metal holders are pressed two at a time through the wire web, slicing them into the thickness of slim business cards. Each millimeter of crystal yields about 21/2 wafers. Detached from their holders, the wafers are loaded into carriers, or boats, for transport to the next step. Converting wafers into cells At this point, a wafer is no more capable of producing electricity than a sliver of river rock. The wafer is the main building block of a PV cell, but so far its only notable characteristics are its crystal structure and positive potential orientation. All of that changes in the third, multistep, cell-production phase of PV manufacturing.More info at Etching In the only phase requiring a designated clean room, a series of intricate chemical and heat treatments converts the blank, grey wafers into productive, blue cells. A so-called texture etch, for instance, removes a tiny layer of silicon, relying on the underlying crystal structure to reveal an irregular pattern of pyramids. The surface of pyramids – so small they’re invisible to the naked eye – absorbs more light. Diffusing Next, wafers are moved in cartridges into long, cylindrical, ovenlike chambers in which phosphorus is diffused into a thin layer of the wafer surface. The molecular-level impregnation occurs as the wafer surface is exposed to phosphorus gas at a high heat, a step that gives the surface a negative potential electrical orientation. The combination of that layer and the boron-doped layer below creates a positive-negative, or P/N, junction – a critical partition in the functioning of a PV cell. Coloring and Printing The burgeoning, still-grey cells move in trays into heavy vacuum chambers where blue-purple silicon nitride is deposited onto their tops. The coating with silicon nitride – yet another member of the silicon family of materials – is designed to reduce reflection even further in the energy-dense blue end of the light spectrum. It leaves the cells with their final, dark color. Now, the cells can optimally gather photons and produce electricity. They lack, however, any mechanism to collect and forward the power. So, in a series of silkscreen- like steps, metals are printed on both sides of the cell, adding pin-stripe “fingers” and bus-bar circuitry. A functioning cell is born – only sunshine needed. Stringing cells into solar panels Each phase of production depends on processes with flavors all their own. Careful control of heating and cooling dominates crystal growing. Wafering employs abrasion and cutting. Cell production concentrates on chemistry. Any factory process would be incomplete without a final assembly step, and in PV such a step is known as moduling. Soldering At SolarWorld, module manufacturing is a highly automated process, relying on robust steel robotics to undertake the increasingly heavy lifting of assembling lightweight PV cells into modules weighing around 45 pounds apiece. Each robotic tool works within a safety fence that, by design, excludes people. First, cells are soldered together into strings of 10, using an over-under-overunder pattern of metal connectors to link the cells. Six strings are laid out to form a rectangular matrix of 60 cells. Each matrix is laminated onto glass. Framing To become a module, however, each laminate requires not only a frame to provide protection against weather and other impacts but also a junction box to enable connections among modules or with an inverter-bound conduit. Robots affix those, too. Inspection and Shipping Careful cleaning and inspection provide final touches before each module can be palletized for delivery to homes and businesses. We seek both seasoned solar installers as well as new contractors interested in entering the market. If customer service, quality installation, and partnering with the best are key to your business strategy, then we want to hear from you.More info at As more and more states adopt solar incentives the U.S. solar market is rapidly expanding beyond California. Companies that enter now will be well positioned to grow as the U.S. solar market expands over the next 5 years. Sunkits® solar electric systems Sunkits makes it simple for you. SolarWorld custom designs each Sunkits system for your customers needs and provides you with a detailed proposal. Training Receive the training that you need to get you solar business started or to take you company to the next level. Marketing materials Save money on producing your own materials with SolarWorld brochures, data sheets and more. Sales leads Grow your business with additional leads direct from SolarWorld. SolarWorld exclusive financing Offer your customers a variety of options to pay for their solar array. SolarWorld Authorized Installer Logo Gain credibility by using the SolarWorld Authorized Installer logo on your web site and marketing materials. Co-marketing Receive additional marketing support as you grow your business. SolarWorld is seeeking both experienced solar installers as well as other companies interested in getting into solar, such as electrical and HVAC companies. Basic knowledge of solar PV Required licensing and insurance per your region Professional customer service Becoming a SolarWorld installer is easy. Simply follow these steps to get started: Step 1: Complete the online inquiry form. Step 2: Attend the Sunkits® webinar. Step 3: Complete formal registration form. Step 4: For installers new to solar PV, attend a local hands on training. Step 5: Start installing! Straightforward security Because SolarWorld produces the highest quality, we can guarantee the best performance. That’s why SolarWorld is the first solar company to offer a 25-year linear performance guarantee* for all modules installed after January 1, 2010. SOLAR SERDAR


CROATIAN CENTER of RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (CCRES)• was founded in 1988 as the non-profit European Association for Renewable Energy that conducts its work independently of political parties, institutions, commercial enterprises and interest groups, • is dedicated to the cause of completely substituting for nuclear and fossil energy through renewable energy, • regards solar energy supply as essential to preserve the natural resources and a prerequisite for a sustainable economy,• acts to change conventional political priorities and common infrastructures in favor of renewable energy, from the local to the international level, • brings together expertise from the fields of politics, economy, science, and culture to promote the entry of solar energy, • provides the opportunity to play a part in the sociocultural movement for renewable energy by joining the association for everyone, • considers full renewable energy supply a momentous and visionary goal - the challenge of the century to humanity. CCRES Željko Serdar Head of association
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